Eye (Lond). 2021 Jan;35(1):17-32. doi: 10.1038/s41433-020-01288-x. Epub 2020 Nov 25.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive medical imaging technology that is playing an increasing role in the routine assessment and management of patients with neuro-ophthalmic conditions. Its ability to characterise the optic nerve head, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer and cellular layers of the macula including the ganglion cell layer enables qualitative and quantitative assessment of optic nerve disease. In this review, we discuss technical features of OCT and OCT-based imaging techniques in the neuro-ophthalmic context, potential pitfalls to be aware of, and specific applications in more common neuro-ophthalmic conditions including demyelinating, inflammatory, ischaemic and compressive optic neuropathies, optic disc drusen and raised intracranial pressure. We also review emerging applications of OCT angiography within neuro-ophthalmology.